Original French: Eurus a viſité Zephire.
Modern French: Eurus a visité Zephire.
Veteres quattuor omnino servavere per totidem mundi partes (ideo nec Homerus plures nominat) hebeti, ut mox iudicatum est, ratione; secuta aetas octo addidit nimis subtili atque concisa. proximis inter utramque media placuit ad brevem ex numerosa additis quattuor. sunt ergo bini in quattuor caeli partibus: ab oriente aequinoctiali Subsolanus, ab oriente brumali Volturnus (illum Apelioten, hunc Graeci Eurum appellant); a meridie Auster et ab occasu brumali Africus (Notum et Liba nominant); ab occasu aequinoctiali Favonius, ab occasu solstitiali Corus (Zephyrum et Argesten vocant); a septentrionibus Septentrio, interque eum et exortum solstitialem Aquilo (Aparctias et Boreas).
The ancients noticed four winds in all, corresponding to the four quarters of the world (this is the reason why even Homer mentions no more)—a dull-witted system, as it was soon afterwards considered; the following age added eight—this system on the other hand was too subtle and meticulous. Their successors adopted a compromise, adding to the short list four winds from the long one. There are consequently two winds in each of the four quarters of the heaven: Subsolanus blowing from the equinoctial sunrise (E). and Vulturnus from the winter sunrise (S.E.)—the former designated by the Greeks Apeliotes, the latter Eurus; Auster from the sun at midday (S.) and Africus from the winter sunset (S.W.)—named in Greek Notus and Libs; Favonius from the equinoctial sunset (W.), Corus from the sunset at the solstice (N.W.)—these the Greeks call Zephyr and Argestes; Septentrio from the North and Aquilo between him and sunrise at the solstice (N.E.)—called in Greek Aparctias and Boreas.
The Natural History. Volume 1: Books 1 – 2
Harris Rackham [1868–1944], translator
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1938
Loeb Classical Library
Boreas, Auster, Eurus, Zephire
Boreas et Auster désignent le nord et le sud; Eurus et Zéphyre, l’est et l’ouest.
Le Tiers Livre. Edition critique
Jean Céard, editor
Librarie Général Français, 1995
Boreas, Auster, Eurus, Zephire
Vents provenant des quatre points cardinaux.
p. 509, n.
Mireille Huchon, editor
Paris: Gallimard, 1994
Zephyros (or Zephyrus) was the god of the west wind, one of the four directional Anemoi (Wind-Gods). He was also the god of spring, husband of Khloris (Greenery), and father of Karpos (Fruit).
Zephyros’ most famous myth told the story of his rivalry with the god Apollon for the love of Hyakinthos. One day he spied the pair playing a game of quoits in a meadow, and in a jealous rage, struck the disc with a gust of wind, causing it to veer off course and strike the boy in the head, killing him instantly. Apollon in his grief, then transformed the dying boy into a larkspur flower.
Zephyros was portrayed in classical art as a handsome, winged youth. In Greek vase painting, the unlabelled figures of a winged god embracing a youth are sometimes identified as Zephyros and Hyakinthos, although other commentators interpret them as Eros (Love) with a generic youth. In Greco-Roman mosaic the god usually appears in the guise of spring personified carrying a basket of unripe fruit.
Vent d’ouest; par ext., vent doux et agréable. Doux, frais, léger, tiède zéphyr; au moindre zéphyr; parfum, souffle du zéphyr.
Quand la tempête fut calmée, nous voulûmes remonter à l’occident, mais le constant zéphyr (…) repoussa long-temps nos voiles (Chateaubr., Martyrs, t. 1, 1810, p. 212)
zephyr. Forms: zefferus, zeferus, zephirus, zeforus, zepherus, zephyrus; zephir(e, -yre, zephyr. [adopted from or adaptation of Latin zephyrus, adopted from Greek zefuroj: compare French zéphire.]
The west wind, esp. as personified, or the god of the west wind.
A. 1000 Riddles xl[i]. 68 Nis zefferus se swifta wind þæt swa fromlice mæ&asg. feran æ&asg.hwær.
13.. E.E. Allit. P. C. 470 & sayez vnte Zeferus þat he syfle warme.
C. 1386 Geoffrey Chaucer Prologue 5 Zephirus..with his swete breeth.
C. 1520 John Skelton Garl. Laurel 677 There blew in that gardynge a soft piplyng colde, Enbrethyng of Zepherus with his pleasant wynde.
1598 George Chapman, translator Iliad vii. [xi.] 120 When the hollow floode of ayre in Zephyres cheeks doth swel.
1605 Drayton Idea liii, Sweet mirrh-breathing Zephire.
1616 R. C. Times’ Whistle (1871) 116 Art thou perhaps that purest breathing aire, Sweet Zephirus?
1632 John Milton L’Allegro 19 Zephir with Aurora playing, As he met her once a Maying.
1667 John Milton Paradise Lost v. 16 With voice Milde, as when Zephyrus on Flora breathes.
A soft mild gentle wind or breeze.
1611 Shakespeare Cymberline iv. ii. 172 They are as gentle As Zephires blowing below the Violet, Not wagging his sweet head.
Notos or Auster
Notos (or Notus) was the god of the South Wind, one of the four Anemoi (Wind-Gods). He was the wet, storm-bringing wind of late summer and early autumn. Notos dwelt in Aithiopia, the southernmost realm in the geography of myth.
[Poseidon] massed the clouds, clutched his trident and churned the ocean up; he roused all the blasts of all the Winds and swathed earth and sea alike in clouds; down from the sky rushed the dark. Euros (East Wind) and Notos (South Wind) clashed together, the stormy Zephyros (West Wind) and the sky-born billow-driving Boreas (North Wind).
Homer, Odyssey 5. 291 ff (trans. Shewring) (Greek epic C8th B.C.)
And Eos (Dawn) bare to Astraios (the Starry) the strong-hearted Anemoi (Winds), brightening Zephyrus (West Wind), and Boreas (North Wind), headlong in his course, and Notos (South Wind)–a goddess mating in love with a god.
Hesiod, Theogony 378 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or C7th B.C.)
Horse-keepers frequently testify to mares being impregnated by the Wind, and to their galloping against Notos (the South Wind) or Borras (the North). And the same poet [Homer] knew this when he said “Of them was Boreas enamoured as they pastured.” Aristotle too, borrowing (as I think) from him, said that they rush away in frenzy straight in the face of the aforesaid Autai (Winds).
Aelian, On Animals 4. 6 (trans. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd A.D.)
Lucifer (the Morning Star) [Eosphoros] revealed the shining day, night fled, Eurus (the East Wind) fell, the rain-clouds rose, steady Auster (South Wind) [Notos] blew.
Ovid, Metamorphoses 8. 1 ff
“The vines offered hope Auster [Notos the South Wind] blackens the sky and sudden rain ravishes their leaves.”
Ovid, Fasti 5. 323 ff (trans.Boyle) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.)