Among plants in some way similar to Pantagruelion, referred to throughout Chapter 49.
Pantagruelion is called Dendromalache when it reaches the height of trees.
For in the case of some plants it might seem that our definitions overlap; and some under cultivation appear to become different and depart from their essential nature, for instance, mallow [μαλάχη, malachi] when it grows tall and becomes tree-like.
Definitions of the various classes into which plants may be divided.
III. Now since our study becomes more illuminating if we distinguish different kinds, it is well to follow this plan where it is possible. The first and most important classes, those which comprise all or nearly all plants, are tree, shrub, under-shrub, herb.
A tree is a thing which springs from the root with a single stem, having knots and several branches, and it cannot easily be uprooted; for instance, olive fig vine. A shrub is a thing which rises from the root with many branches; for instance, bramble Christ’s thorn. An under-shrub is a thing which rises from the root with many stems as well as many branches; for instance, savory rue, A herb is a thing which comes up from the root with its leaves and has no main stem, and the seed is borne on the stem; for instance, corn and pot-herbs.
These definitions however must be taken and accepted as applying generally and on the whole. For in the case of some plants it might seem that our definitions overlap; and some under cultivation appear to become different and depart from their essential nature, for instance, mallow3 when it grows tall and becomes tree-like. For this comes to pass in no long time, not more than six or seven months, so that in length and thickness the plant becomes as great as a spear, and men accordingly use it as a walking-stick, and after a longer period the result of cultivation is proportionately greater.
quaedam vocabimus ferulacea, ut anetum, malvas; namque tradunt auctores in Arabia [ Mayhoff coll. Theophr. (in Arabia fictum ex mabia = malua). malvas septumo mense arborescere baculorumqueusum praebere. exemplo est arbor malvae in Mauretania Lixi oppidi aestuario, ubi Hesperidum horti fuisse produntur, cc passibus ab oceano iuxta delubrum Herculis antiquius Gaditano, ut ferunt: ipsa altitudinis pedum xx, crassitudinis quam circumplecti nemo possit. in simili genere habebitur et cannabis.
Some plants we shall call of the fennel class, for instance dill and mallow [Mallow has no relation to any other plants in this chapter]; for authorities report that in Arabia mallows grow into trees in seven months, and serve as walking-sticks. There is an instance of a mallow-tree on the estuary of the town of Lixus in Mauretania, the place where the Gardens of the Hesperids are said to have been situated; it grows 200 yards from the ocean, near a shrine of Hercules which is said to be older than the one at Cadiz; the tree itself is 20 ft. high, and so large round that nobody could span it with his arms. Hemp will also be placed in a similar class.
On lit Dendromalachie dans Le Duchat, mais il faut lire Dendromalache, d’après l’edition de 1552, et d’àpres l’étymologie de ce mot, qui vient de δίνδρον, arbre, μαλαχὁζ, délicat, tendre.
The reading must be dendrolachana, as this passage seems to be taken from Theophrastus H. P. i. 3. 4. and dendromalache is not found in Theophrastus.
Dendromalache, mauve qui monte en arbre (Althæa rosea), répondant au δενδρομαλάχη des Géoponiques (xv,5,5) et à l’ἀναδενδρομαλάχη de Galien; mais Théophraste, dont Rabelais invoque l’authorité à ce propos, ne connaît (I,5,1) que μαλάχη δενδρώδηζ , que Fraas (p. 100) identifie avec la Lavatera arborea de Linné. Il est donc probable que Rabelais, citant de mémoire, a confondu le nom de la plante chez Théophraste avec celui qu’elle possède dans les Géoponiques.
Théophrase (Hist pl., l. X, ch 5) décrit une [greek] qui serait, d’après Fraas, notre Lavatera arborea L (Malvacée). C’est la même sans doute que cite Pline : « Tradunt auctores in Arabia malvas septime mense arborescere, baculorumque usum praebere extemplo ». (XIX, 22) — Mais Rabelais l’a sans doube confondue avec la [greek] des Géoponiques (XV, 5, 5), [greek] de Galien (Meth. med., l XIV, ch. 5) qui serait, d’apres Sainéan (H.N.R., p. 104) l’Althea rosea Cav. (Paul Delaunay)
Théophraste, Histoire des plantes, XV, v, Rabelais confondant vraisemblablement la plante décrite par Théophraste avec la δενδρομαλάχη des Géoponiques (XV, v, 5) de Galien (voir Tiers livre, ed. Lefranc, n. 19, p. 340). L’exemplaire des livres VI-IX, Theophrasti de Suffruticibus, herbisque
et frugibus libri quattuor, Theodora gaza interprete, conservé à la Réserve de la Bibliotheque nationale, offre une note autographe de Rabelais en titre.
La mauve en arbre, désignée d’un nom tout proche par Théophraste.
dendro-, before a vowel dendr-, combining form of Greek dendron tree
dendranatomy, the anatomy of trees (obs.).
dendranthropology, study based on the theory that man had sprung from trees
dendroclastic., breaking or destroying trees, a destroyer of trees.
dendrography, description of trees (Syd. Soc. Lex.).
dendroheliophallic , said of a symbolic figure combining a tree, a sun, and a phallus.
dendrolatry, worship of trees.
dendrolite, a petrified or fossil tree or part of a tree.
dendrometer, an instrument for measuring trees.
dendrophil, a lover of trees.
dendrophilous, tree-loving; in In botany growing on or twining round trees.
[1706 Phillips (ed. Kersey), Dendrachates (Greek), a kind of Agate-stone, the Veins and Spots of which resemble the Figures of Trees and Shrubs. ]
1697 Philosophical Transactions. XIX. 558 Dendranatome may, tho’ more remotely, advance even the Practice of Physick, by the Discovery of the Oeconomy of Plants.
1753 Ephriam Chambers Cyclopædia; or, an universal dictionary of arts and sciences, Supplement, Dendranatomy, a term used by Malpighi and others to express the dissection of the ligneous parts of trees and shrubs, in order to the examining their structure and uses.
1843 Southey Doctor ccxv. VII. 168 He formed, therefore, no system of dendranthropology.
1891 T. J. Jeakes in N. & Q. 7th Ser. XII. 395 The dendroheliophallic `Tree of Life’, probably.
1891 translation ofDe La Saussaye’s Man. Scotch Religion xii. 89 The impressions which have given rise to dendrolatry.