as well green and raw, as confected and prepared.



as well green and raw, as confected and prepared.

Original French:  tant verde & crude, que confiƈte & præparée.

Modern French:  tant verde & crude, que conficte & praeparée.

Pantagruel loaded his ships with Pantagruelion tant verde & crude, “green as well as raw” (Pantagruelion is a feminine noun).

In Chapter 51, Rabelais notes, “Si promptement voulez guerir une bruslure, soit d’eaue, soit de feu, applicquez y du Pantagruelion crud, c’est à dire tel qui naist de terre, sans aultre appareil ne composition” (Pantagruelion is a masculine noun).

That is to say, take it as it comes out of the ground, without bestowing any other preparation or composition.



On dit de certains fruits, qu’Ils sont confits sur l’arbre, quand ils sont extremement meurs & cuits par le soleil.

Dictionnaire de L’Académie française (5th Edition). 1798.


Mirkiel li apoticaires vend plusieurs espices, et si mainte plaines de confections et maint pot plain de cirops (Dialog. fr.-flam, folio 16, Michelant.)

Godefroy, Frédéric (1826–97), Dictionaire de l’ancienne langue Française. Et du tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe Siècle. Paris: Vieweg, Libraire-Éditeur, 1881-1902. Lexilogos – Dictionnaire ancien français

Pantagruelion crude

In Chapter 51, Rabelais recommends “…applicquez y du Pantagruelion crud, c’eſt a dire tel qui naiſt de terre, ſans aultre appareil ne compoſition.”

“Apply raw [crud] Pantagruelion, that is to say, take it as it cometh out of the ground, without bestowing any other preparation or composition upon it.” [Smith’s translation]

Rabelais, François (1483?–1553), The Five Books and Minor Writings. Volume 1: Books I-III. William Francis Smith (1842–1919), translator. London: Alexader P. Watt, 1893. verde & crude. Internet Archive


Forms: 4 confeccioun, 5-6 -ion, 5-7 -fexion, 5 -fectyone, 6 -tione, -feccyon, (-feccon), 5- confection. [a. F. confection, OF. confeccion, ad. L. confecti]n-em, n. of action from confic]re: see CONFECT v.]

1. Making or preparation by mixture of ingredients; mixing, compounding; composition, preparation, making up, manufacture. Sometimes esp. the making of preserves or confectionery.

1477 NORTON Ord. Alch. in Ashm. (1652) 89 Confection of the Red medicine.
1584 R. SCOT Disc. Witchcr. XII. xvii. 212 There be artificial glasses, which will shew unto you..many images.. Looke in John Bap. Neap. for the confection of such glasses.
1615 CROOKE Body of Man 128 For a confection of some kinde of bloud.

2. The performance of the sacrifice of the mass. Obs.

1564 BECON Compar. Lord’s Supp. & Mass Epil., Blasphemies against Christ…invocation of dead saints, confection, consecration, application, and oblation of the body and blood of Christ.

3. Putting together; arrangement; compilation.

1652 GAULE Magastrom. xxiv. 223 For without a constellated fabrication or confection all these presaging mirables (and the like)

4. Prepared or composed state or condition; composition, constitution. Obs.

c1420 Pallad. on Husb. II. 406 This fisshe, and lardde, and flitches salt to kepe In just confection now taketh kepe.
1609 BIBLE (Douay) Ecclus. xlix. 1 The memorie of Josias is according to the confection of perfume made by…an apothecarie.
1633 P. FLETCHER Pisc. Ecl. V. xix, Why blam’st thou then my stonie hard confection, Which nothing loves?

5. A preparation made by mixing; a composition, mixture, compound. Obs. in general sense.

1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) I. 221 [{Th}]at man closede a confeccioun of brymston and of blak salt in a vessel of bras, and sette hit on the fire.
1621 BURTON Anat. Mel. II. iv. I. iv, Potable Gold, Mercury, and many other chymicall confections.

b. A medicinal preparation compounded of various drugs; in later use, spec. one compounded with a sweetening and preserving agent.

1398 TREVISA Barth. De P.R. XVII. xi. (1495) 609 Laye the same confexion to the sore wythout.
c1400 Lanfranc’s Cirurg. 94 (MS. A) Leie on this confeccioun maad of flour of wheete & honey & jus of smalache.
1549 Compl. Scot. ix. 80 That confectione vas callit to name eftiruart, antidotum mitridates.
1585 LLOYD Treas. Health Bv, Make a confeccon of the floure of Fenell Seede in a Glasse with wyne and annoynt the head therwyth.
1611 BIBLE Ecclus. xxxviii. 8 Of such doeth the Apothecarie make a confection [WYCLIF pymentis of swotenesse].

c. spec. A prepared poison, a deadly potion.

1477 EARL RIVERS (Caxton) Dictes 49 Here is the confection yt thou must drinke.
1547-64 BAULDWIN Mor. Philos. I. li, After he [Socrates] had commended his soule to God, hee dranke the confection.
1586 A. DAY Engl. Secretarie II. (1625) 98 A venemous confection.
1611 SHAKES. Cymb. V. v. 246.
1658 USSHER Ann. VI. 572 Well skilled in Confections of the poyson of Serpents.

d. A prepared dish or delicacy; now, a preparation of fruit, spices, sugar, or the like, used as a relish or dainty; a preserve, sweetmeat, comfit.

1393 GOWER Conf. III. 23 Confection of cokes.
c1440 Promp. Parv. 90 Confectyon of spyces.
a1536 TINDALE Expos. Matt. (Parker Soc.) 97 To banquet…of all manner of fruits and confections.
1583 STUBBES Anat. Abus. I. (1877) 102 Sweet condyments and delicat confections of spiceries.
1626 BACON Sylva §705 They have in Turkey certaine Confections, which they call Serbets, which are like Candied Conserves.



Posted 11 January 2013. Modified 13 April 2020.

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